146 FLORA INDICA. 11. BANDELKHAND. The district of Bandelkhand, including the small state of Kewah, which has the same physical features, occupies the northern slope of the Vindhia range, from the borders of Ba- har on the east to Gwalior en the west. The watershed of that range is included within the province of Malvrah, but long, flat-topped spurs descend towards the Jumna, separating the broad valleys of numerous rivers which ilow northward. A little east of Gwalior these spurs extend almost to the Jumna, but further east they recede from the river, and, when viewed from the northward, appear to form an amphitheatre of precipices, so as to give the plain of Bandcikhand the ap- pearance of a vast bay of the sea surrounded by sandstone cliffs, which again advance almost to the river not far from Mirzapur. Tho greatest width of the plain is about thirty miles, and near the hills many scattered insulated rocks occur, behind which the surface rises in a succession of steps, sepa- rated by level platforms, to the height of 2000 feot, whence it slopes gradually up to the watershed of the Nerbada, the average elevation of which is perhaps 2500 feet. The plain of Bandelkhand near the Jumna is fertile and well cultivated, but the interior is generally barren, except in the valleys. Many lakes, which are all partly artificial, diver- sify the surface, and the hills are covered with low jungle. Its seasons are those usual in northern India. The rains commence in June and terminate in September, but, from the central position of the province, they ata less heavy than in Malwah. The dry season is intensely hot, and there is,a well marked cold season. For our knowledge of the vegetation, of Bandcikhand, wo are mainly indebted to Mr. Bdgeworth, who has published* a catalogue of the plants of the district of Banda. He enume- rates 605 species of phsenogamous plants; few of these differ from those common in the Dekhan and Gangetic plain, and the hill species are mostly common in the subtropical Hima- * In the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta.